SETTLEMENT OF DIFFUSE HOMES
2019 / Housing / Albuccione, IT

Built in the late 1980s by the municipality of Guidonia Montecelio in the north-east Roman Agro, Albuccione was one of the last social housing projects to be built in Rome, in an era when the government used social housing to train residents for private homeownership rather than advocate for communal forms of living. To the south of this social housing are two informal communities where settlement has occurred along slender, linear agrarian fields. The physical constraint of the linear lots and the lack of infrastructure for these settlements have forced residents to build informal secondary structures to perform labor that their primary residence cannot accommodate. Thus, Albuccione is a settlement where the household has been disassembled into various elements, scattered across the site, and reconstituted in diffuse form. With a third of its population over the age of 65 and an even greater number forced to partially dwell in shoddily-built structures, Albuccione is facing a crisis of care. However problematic in its current state, this deconstructed condition of domesticity also presents an opportunity to reinvent reproductive labor as a shared public ritual rather than one belonging to the private domestic sphere. This project reconstitutes the household as a linear strip of collective rooms for the commoning of reproductive labor and care. The project first implements a “comb” structure of platforms along a linear path, which provides common space between existing homes for shared domestic activity. This subdivision provides structure for densification through a new model of communal housing: single-story assisted living units with communal spaces where residents care for one another and engage in shared agricultural and industrial production. Though this process of commoning operates as a ground-up protocol, beginning with the agreement between individual families to share basic domestic resources and labor, it can eventually reorganize the structure of each settlement as a whole according to the logic of communal care and provide the settlement with a legible infrastructure for new communal rituals of domesticity.

M.Arch I Advanced Studio / Critics: Pier Vittorio Aureli, Emily Abruzzo
In collaboration with Haylie Chan
Published in Wasteland and Retrospecta 42








LIVING THEATER
2017 / Transportation + Market + Office / Bronx, NY

As a ferry terminal, kitchen incubator, and marketplace for Clason Point, Living Theater turns a nexus of physical and commercial exchange into a space of performance and spectatorship. Living Theater posits public space as a theater of everyday life. The building constructs moments of performative action and spectatorship primarily through sectional differentiation: employing flat platforms as stages while raised steps serve as seating for observation. The tectonic form of the building allows for this sectional denotation of performance/spectatorship. The building is an elevated mass that rests on four structural and circulatory cores. This structural system enables an unobstructed free plan that is transformed into a free section. In raising the warehouse and kitchen incubator/co-working space, the ground beneath the building becomes a public plaza. The ground level is an open array of platforms and stairs that double as stages and seating, respectively. The platforms directly under the building become a covered marketplace and open social space for impromptu events and performances, while the eastern edge of the ground floor serves as the ferry terminal boarding area. Within the building mass itself, the plan remains open to enable visual continuity and fluidity in moving between areas of performance and spectatorship. Despite the openness of the plan and section, however, Living Theater is not a neutral container for events, but employs the specific constraints of architectural form to influence user activity towards the performative. As a building that turns everyday event into theater, narrative fiction is not only an important means of representation but also a generative tool for design. These narratives scripts dictate an experiential procession in which users undergo fluid shifts between performing and spectating, vignettes which then become physicalized as built form; thus, the building becomes the physical artifact of the narratives it generates.

M.Arch I Third Semester Studio / Critic: Emily Abruzzo / Size: 40,000 SF
Published in Retrospecta 41







ROTHKO CHAPEL GATHERING CENTER
2018 / Cultural / Houston, TX

The Rothko Chapel resides in Houston’s Montrose neighborhood, where the Menil Collection’s campus of freestanding, single-use buildings and repurposed bungalows blend seamlessly into the residential fabric.  This proposed expansion to the Rothko Chapel introduces a vertical mixed-use urbanism to the suburban site, placing a visitor center, administrative offices, energy house, and a new gathering space all within a single building. As a site strategy, the building completes the axis from Barnett Newman’s Broken Obelisk to the Rothko Chapel. A new landcape of paving surrounds the original plaza to continue the axis towards the new building while registering an expansion from the historic condition of the plaza. The ramped entrance of this new building creates a second public plaza behind the chapel, activating the back of the chapel as a framed view. This upward slope provides a monumental entrance that indicates the new building’s expansion in scale, yet is also deferential to the chapel by directing views towards it. The building maintains a solid outward face that reveals fragmented vignettes of its active interior, in which programmatic volumes are projected towards a central atrium. This atrium stages an urban interior through the visual juxtaposition of a diverse set of activities that are simultaneously visible. This diversity results from the division of the new gathering space into multiple spaces of differing scales, so that multiple types of spiritual or non-spiritual experience can occupy the building at once. As such, the building refuses to produce a single totalizing experience of spirituality. Instead, the project embraces the mission of the Rothko Chapel in celebrating difference so that no collective will ever have ownership over the entire space.

M.Arch I Advanced Studio / Critics: Adam Yarinsky, Lexi Tsien-Shiang / Size: 20,000 SF







CANARSIE AFTER THE RAIN
2018 / Urban + Infrastructural / Canarsie, Brooklyn, NY

When FEMA’s redrew New York City’s flood insurance rate maps after Hurricane Sandy, homeowners in Canarsie, Brooklyn were faced with rising insurance premiums and decreasing property values with no economic means to escape the flood risk zone. This project is founded upon the contrasting notions and desires surrounding waterfront living: both a romanticized luxury and financially crippling reality. The solution to Canarsie’s housing crisis lies not in architectural form alone, but in leveraging the narratives and cultural imaginings of housing and land towards the relocation of floodplain residents and the resilient redevelopment of Canarsie. This project reconsiders design as a process of negotiating the interplay between spatial dispositifs, systems, protocols, and non-architectural actors. The proposal identifies four actors that shape the spatial environment of Canarsie: the City Government, the Real Estate Developer, the Architect, and the Land Development Corporation. Coupled with these four actors are four design contagions: exchanges between actors that redirect their individual interests towards a desired outcome. First, we propose a government program for relocating Canarsie floodplain residents to safer areas within neighborhood. We then leverage the desire and value for waterfront property to spur private development in Canarsie. These developments continue to draw homeowners out from the floodplain in exchange for land use rights. Finally, the cleared land is developed into resilient greenspace that doubles as luxury amenity. Though each actor acts entirely selfishly in their own interest, their desires are harnessed to achieve a humanitarian goal. Ultimately the project engages not with housing in its physical, architectural form, but investigates the values, desires, and cultural narratives that surround housing, and how these narratives can be designed and employed to leverage powerful actors into implementing a certain spatial outcome.

M.Arch I Fourth Semester Urban Studio / Critic: Keller Easterling
In collaboration with Nicholas Miller and Matthew Wagstaffe







RETURN TO PLACE
2020 / Pidgin 27

Marketed as the ultimate “try before you buy” app, IKEA Place presents the user with an augmented reality simulation of furniture so that the user can perceive the literal and aesthetic “fit” between a piece of furniture and the space of the home. IKEA’s operation, like that of most logistical actors, is concerned with the efficient movement and flow of objects between sites rather than the physical objects or sites themselves. As a consequence, this logistical strategy overlooks concerns of human aesthetic experience, producing sites of unfathomable spatial logic and objects designed for standardized transport rather than aesthetic consumption. While IKEA must turn physical objects into logistical products for ease of logistical distribution, these products must be re-ascribed as aesthetic objects when they reach the consumer’s domestic space. As an interface capable of translating logistical spaces and products into visually consumable information, augmented reality emerges as a powerful tool for re-aestheticizing logistics. IKEA Place is not merely a tool for streamlining the supply chain at the retail end, but aestheticizes a logistical regime of viewing space, transplanting logistical products into the space of the personal home as aesthetic items. The importance of PLACE in IKEA’s advertising campaign is indicative of this strategy. While logistics is agnostic to site as a place of bodily experience, IKEA Place promises to bring a logistical mode of thinking back into the realm of spatial experience, by employing its space planning technology towards the experience of one’s own PLACE. Yet in viewing space only as a container for the efficient placement of goods, IKEA Place reproduces the personal home as logistical space, detaching the home from notions of PLACE. Instead, IKEA Place aestheticizes IKEA’s logistical strategy into spectacle, making visible an otherwise immaterial operation for the purposes of advertisement.

Illustrations by Haylie Chan  
Full Text







PAPRIKA! POST-IRONIC-POST
2017 / Paprika! Vol. 3 Issue 3

The post-ironic describes an ambiguity of intention, simultaneously ironic and sincere. In our post-Poe’s Law culture in which internet anonymity obscures intentionality, irony and sincerity are increasingly muddled. Though the post-ironic is initially conceived as a limitation of the internet as a platform, the ambiguity produced by this uniquely contemporary condition has powerful implications for artistic production. Post-ironic artists deploy ambiguity to produce multiple readings; functioning as humorous parody but also incisive political commentary and personal expression. Authored ambiguity presents powerful possibilities for architecture. The post-ironic provides a framework for negotiating between two models of architectural practice: the visionary and the self-critical. If architectural modernism represents extreme sincerity through its rigid dogmas and idealist ambitions, the theoretical frameworks of postmodernism utilized irony as a critique against the utopian naiveté and oppressive seriousness of modernism. As an exercise in performing its own opposite extreme, the tools of irony (humor, superficiality, reappropriation, tastelessness) allow for architecture to criticize itself. The phenomenon of post-irony, in which irony and sincerity coexist, affords the possibility for architecture to move beyond self-critique towards the very ambitions that postmodernism decried. The broader promise of the post-ironic is that it legitimizes topics and practices deemed “not serious” and asks for them to be taken seriously. Ultimately, irony necessitates detachment, an advantageous position for reacting against but incapable of advocating for. While ironic design breeds cynicism through negation, post-irony opens the possibility for potentially transformative optimism.

Edited with Lani Barry / Design by Hicham Faraj
Web / PDF







RUDOLPH HALL WEATHER REPORT: A PSYCHO-ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
2019 / Published in Paprika! Vol 4 Issue 9: Temperature

6TH FLOOR BRIDGE: 81°F / 28°C
PRESSURE: 35.03 inHg
The bridge has no mercy. You suffer an oppressive heat as the bridge elevates you towards the radiating vents in the drop ceiling. The concrete that surrounds you makes sure this air remains uncirculated and stale. As one of the unlucky residents of the windowless bridge on the 6th floor, you are deprived of natural daylight, but spoiled with an overabundance of heat. During the first few months of one’s stay, Rudolph incubates within you a burning passion for knowledge and creativity. As if reciprocating this manic energy, Rudolph turns up its temperature on you as stakes get higher and deadlines approach. As your schedule continues at its frantic first semester pace, caffeine intake skyrockets, sleep plummets, and you wonder what happens when this fiery perseverance that keeps you going eventually burns you out. 

6th FLOOR PIT: 88°F / 31°C
(FEELS LIKE 97°F / 36°C)
As you stand in the center of it all, stumbling through your final presentation, you grow hot in embarrassment and fervor. Your “review outfit,” a tasteful blazer with a sweater underneath, only exacerbates the situation. When the jury finishes roasting you over an open flame, you turn to your neighbor and ask if they are hot, or if it’s just you. They answer yes, but whether due to nerves overstimulated by scalding black coffee or the literal temperature of the pit, you cannot be sure.

Issue Editors: Page Comeaux, Nicole Doan, Alejandro Duran / Design by Dawoon Jeon
Full Text







(DE)SIGN
2017 / Paprika! Vol 2 Issue 17: Mode

Deriving from the same Latin root signum, design as an act is intimately tied with sign, a representation that evokes a signified idea. To design is to designate: to create signs that mark out ideas beyond the object itself. But perhaps one can intentionally misread this etymology in a dumber way. If one interprets the root de as a removal (de-frost, de-laminate, de-activate), the act of design is reversed: a removal of signage from the object that complicates the pairing of a singular object with its signified meaning. This misinterpreted notion of de-sign informs parallel trends in architecture and fashion in which the object sign is removed from its original context to disrupt a singular understanding and introduce a multiplicity of interpretations. Fashion has been particularly infatuated with signage since its inception through its meticulous curation of brands, but in recent years, the appropriation of streetwear sensibilities in high fashion have shifted focus towards the logo as the primary object of design. The streetwear label, Supreme, in particular, has made its iconic Futura bold italic red box logo into a symbol of exclusivity through the pricing and self-imposed scarcity of its items. While Supreme designs through a signing of objects with its brand, Demna Gvasalia’s Vetements appropriates existing signs and recontextualizes them as objects of desire. Most notably, the Vetements Spring/Summer 2016 line featured the appropriation of the uniform worn by DHL shipping company employees for the runway and later retail at a starting price of $330 USD. The shirt was a near exact replica of DHL worker’s uniforms, save a secondary understated, embroidered logo on the back collar “VETEMENTS/PRINTEMPS-ETE 2016.”  While the incorporation of irony and uniform-inspired motifs into fashion is by no means new, the direct quotation of the DHL uniform divorces the sign of the DHL logo from its original commercial association and turns it into a luxury brand within the tightly controlled supply chain of high fashion.  

Issue Editors: Suzanne Marchelewicz, Francesca Xavier / Design by Bryce Wilner
In collaboration with Lani Barry / PDF







RISK PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (1/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Keller Easterling’s piece for the 2019 Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism addresses the topic of the Collective City in four new videos depicting protocols for informal, loosely collective action. These videos depict a series of stop motion spatial games where individuals address challenges their communities face by trading problems to formulate collective solutions. Risk Protocol depicts a process of subtraction in floodprone areas to reduce collective climate risk through a bundling of mortgages.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture







OVERDEVELOPMENT PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (2/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Overdevelopment Protocol outlines a similar notion of subtraction that addresses deforestation by linking the benefits of reforested areas with incentives for densification.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture







NEED PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (3/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Need Protocol explores the spatial interplay behind Social Capital Credits, coined by Geehta Mehta as a way to consider needs as currencies to be exchanged, which accumulate as collective benefits.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture







DISASTER PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (4/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Disaster Protocol portrays the process of Participatory Land Readjustment as a communal act of rearranging land ownership to increase the value of land as a whole.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture







UNTITLED (TRACKING)
2017 / Video

Exhibited in Stealth, Subterranean Screening, Yale School of Art







VILLA TYCOON
2017 / Video

Recognizing the inherent absurdity of Le Corbusier’s notion of architecture as a “machine for living” in attempting to couple the machinic with the human, this animation reimagines Villa Stein as a Rube Goldberg machine for human motion. The video concieves of the Villa as an amusement park ride: a set of chain reactions for human exhilaration. The video translates Corbusier’s conception of the machine for life from purely aesthetic to literal.

Team: Jeffrey Liu, Nancy Chen, Anna Rothschild, Issy Yi




























/
/

SETTLEMENT OF DIFFUSE HOMES
2019 / Housing / Albuccione, IT

Built in the late 1980s by the municipality of Guidonia Montecelio in the north-east Roman Agro, Albuccione was one of the last social housing projects to be built in Rome, in an era when the government used social housing to train residents for private homeownership rather than advocate for communal forms of living. To the south of this social housing are two informal communities where settlement has occurred along slender, linear agrarian fields. The physical constraint of the linear lots and the lack of infrastructure for these settlements have forced residents to build informal secondary structures to perform labor that their primary residence cannot accommodate. Thus, Albuccione is a settlement where the household has been disassembled into various elements, scattered across the site, and reconstituted in diffuse form. With a third of its population over the age of 65 and an even greater number forced to partially dwell in shoddily-built structures, Albuccione is facing a crisis of care. However problematic in its current state, this deconstructed condition of domesticity also presents an opportunity to reinvent reproductive labor as a shared public ritual rather than one belonging to the private domestic sphere. This project reconstitutes the household as a linear strip of collective rooms for the commoning of reproductive labor and care. The project first implements a “comb” structure of platforms along a linear path, which provides common space between existing homes for shared domestic activity. This subdivision provides structure for densification through a new model of communal housing: single-story assisted living units with communal spaces where residents care for one another and engage in shared agricultural and industrial production. Though this process of commoning operates as a ground-up protocol, beginning with the agreement between individual families to share basic domestic resources and labor, it can eventually reorganize the structure of each settlement as a whole according to the logic of communal care and provide the settlement with a legible infrastructure for new communal rituals of domesticity.

M.Arch I Advanced Studio
Critics: Pier Vittorio Aureli, Emily Abruzzo
In collaboration with Haylie Chan
Published in Retrospecta 42



/
/

LIVING THEATER
2017 / Transportation+Market+Office / Bronx, NY

As a ferry terminal, kitchen incubator, and marketplace for Clason Point, Living Theater turns a nexus of physical and commercial exchange into a space of performance and spectatorship. Living Theater posits public space as a theater of everyday life. The building constructs moments of performative action and spectatorship primarily through sectional differentiation: employing flat platforms as stages while raised steps serve as seating for observation. The tectonic form of the building allows for this sectional denotation of performance/spectatorship. The building is an elevated mass that rests on four structural and circulatory cores. This structural system enables an unobstructed free plan that is transformed into a free section. In raising the warehouse and kitchen incubator/co-working space, the ground beneath the building becomes a public plaza. The ground level is an open array of platforms and stairs that double as stages and seating, respectively. The platforms directly under the building become a covered marketplace and open social space for impromptu events and performances, while the eastern edge of the ground floor serves as the ferry terminal boarding area. Within the building mass itself, the plan remains open to enable visual continuity and fluidity in moving between areas of performance and spectatorship. Despite the openness of the plan and section, however, Living Theater is not a neutral container for events, but employs the specific constraints of architectural form to influence user activity towards the performative. As a building that turns everyday event into theater, narrative fiction is not only an important means of representation but also a generative tool for design. These narratives scripts dictate an experiential procession in which users undergo fluid shifts between performing and spectating, vignettes which then become physicalized as built form; thus, the building becomes the physical artifact of the narratives it generates.

M.Arch I Third Semester Studio 
Critic: Emily Abruzzo
Size: 40,000 SF         
Published in Retrospecta 41



/
/

ROTHKO CHAPEL GATHERING CENTER
2018 / Cultural / Houston, TX

The Rothko Chapel resides in Houston’s Montrose neighborhood, where the Menil Collection’s campus of freestanding, single-use buildings and repurposed bungalows blend seamlessly into the residential fabric.  This proposed expansion to the Rothko Chapel introduces a vertical mixed-use urbanism to the suburban site, placing a visitor center, administrative offices, energy house, and a new gathering space all within a single building. As a site strategy, the building completes the axis from Barnett Newman’s Broken Obelisk to the Rothko Chapel. A new landcape of paving surrounds the original plaza to continue the axis towards the new building while registering an expansion from the historic condition of the plaza. The ramped entrance of this new building creates a second public plaza behind the chapel, activating the back of the chapel as a framed view. This upward slope provides a monumental entrance that indicates the new building’s expansion in scale, yet is also deferential to the chapel by directing views towards it. The building maintains a solid outward face that reveals fragmented vignettes of its active interior, in which programmatic volumes are projected towards a central atrium. This atrium stages an urban interior through the visual juxtaposition of a diverse set of activities that are simultaneously visible. This diversity results from the division of the new gathering space into multiple spaces of differing scales, so that multiple types of spiritual or non-spiritual experience can occupy the building at once. As such, the building refuses to produce a single totalizing experience of spirituality. Instead, the project embraces the mission of the Rothko Chapel in celebrating difference so that no collective will ever have ownership over the entire space.

M.Arch I Advanced Studio
Critics: Adam Yarinsky, Lexi Tsien-Shiang
Size: 20,000 SF



/
/

CANARSIE AFTER THE RAIN
2018 / Urban+Infrastructure / Canarsie, Brooklyn, NY         
When FEMA’s redrew New York City’s flood insurance rate maps after Hurricane Sandy, homeowners in Canarsie, Brooklyn were faced with rising insurance premiums and decreasing property values with no economic means to escape the flood risk zone. This project is founded upon the contrasting notions and desires surrounding waterfront living: both a romanticized luxury and financially crippling reality. The solution to Canarsie’s housing crisis lies not in architectural form alone, but in leveraging the narratives and cultural imaginings of housing and land towards the relocation of floodplain residents and the resilient redevelopment of Canarsie. This project reconsiders design as a process of negotiating the interplay between spatial dispositifs, systems, protocols, and non-architectural actors. The proposal identifies four actors that shape the spatial environment of Canarsie: the City Government, the Real Estate Developer, the Architect, and the Land Development Corporation. Coupled with these four actors are four design contagions: exchanges between actors that redirect their individual interests towards a desired outcome. First, we propose a government program for relocating Canarsie floodplain residents to safer areas within neighborhood. We then leverage the desire and value for waterfront property to spur private development in Canarsie. These developments continue to draw homeowners out from the floodplain in exchange for land use rights. Finally, the cleared land is developed into resilient greenspace that doubles as luxury amenity. Though each actor acts entirely selfishly in their own interest, their desires are harnessed to achieve a humanitarian goal. Ultimately the project engages not with housing in its physical, architectural form, but investigates the values, desires, and cultural narratives that surround housing, and how these narratives can be designed and employed to leverage powerful actors into implementing a certain spatial outcome.

M.Arch I Fourth Semester Urban Studio
Critic: Keller Easterling
In collaboration with Nicholas Miller and Matthew Wagstaffe



/
/

RETURN TO PLACE
2020 / Pidgin 27

Marketed as the ultimate “try before you buy” app, IKEA Place presents the user with an augmented reality simulation of furniture so that the user can perceive the literal and aesthetic “fit” between a piece of furniture and the space of the home. IKEA’s operation, like that of most logistical actors, is concerned with the efficient movement and flow of objects between sites rather than the physical objects or sites themselves. As a consequence, this logistical strategy overlooks concerns of human aesthetic experience, producing sites of unfathomable spatial logic and objects designed for standardized transport rather than aesthetic consumption. While IKEA must turn physical objects into logistical products for ease of logistical distribution, these products must be re-ascribed as aesthetic objects when they reach the consumer’s domestic space. As an interface capable of translating logistical spaces and products into visually consumable information, augmented reality emerges as a powerful tool for re-aestheticizing logistics. IKEA Place is not merely a tool for streamlining the supply chain at the retail end, but aestheticizes a logistical regime of viewing space, transplanting logistical products into the space of the personal home as aesthetic items. The importance of PLACE in IKEA’s advertising campaign is indicative of this strategy. While logistics is agnostic to site as a place of bodily experience, IKEA Place promises to bring a logistical mode of thinking back into the realm of spatial experience, by employing its space planning technology towards the experience of one’s own PLACE. Yet in viewing space only as a container for the efficient placement of goods, IKEA Place reproduces the personal home as logistical space, detaching the home from notions of PLACE. Instead, IKEA Place aestheticizes IKEA’s logistical strategy into spectacle, making visible an otherwise immaterial operation for the purposes of advertisement.

Illustrations by Haylie Chan
Issue Editors: Jonah Coe-Scharff, Chase Galis, Ryan Hughes, Anna Kerr, Jamie Lipson, Christina Moushoul, Sonia Sobrino Ralston, Anna Renken, Ian Ting
Full Text



/
/

PAPRIKA! POST-IRONIC-POST
2017 / Paprika! Vol. 3 Issue 3

The post-ironic describes an ambiguity of intention, simultaneously ironic and sincere. In our post-Poe’s Law culture in which internet anonymity obscures intentionality, irony and sincerity are increasingly muddled. Though the post-ironic is initially conceived as a limitation of the internet as a platform, the ambiguity produced by this uniquely contemporary condition has powerful implications for artistic production. Post-ironic artists deploy ambiguity to produce multiple readings; functioning as humorous parody but also incisive political commentary and personal expression. Authored ambiguity presents powerful possibilities for architecture. The post-ironic provides a framework for negotiating between two models of architectural practice: the visionary and the self-critical. If architectural modernism represents extreme sincerity through its rigid dogmas and idealist ambitions, the theoretical frameworks of postmodernism utilized irony as a critique against the utopian naiveté and oppressive seriousness of modernism. As an exercise in performing its own opposite extreme, the tools of irony (humor, superficiality, reappropriation, tastelessness) allow for architecture to criticize itself. The phenomenon of post-irony, in which irony and sincerity coexist, affords the possibility for architecture to move beyond self-critique towards the very ambitions that postmodernism decried. The broader promise of the post-ironic is that it legitimizes topics and practices deemed “not serious” and asks for them to be taken seriously. Ultimately, irony necessitates detachment, an advantageous position for reacting against but incapable of advocating for. While ironic design breeds cynicism through negation, post-irony opens the possibility for potentially transformative optimism.

Edited with Lani Barry
Design by Hicham Faraj
Web / PDF



/
/

RUDOLPH HALL WEATHER REPORT: A PSYCHO-ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
2019 / Published in Paprika! Vol 4 Issue 9: Temperature

6TH FLOOR BRIDGE: 81°F / 28°C
PRESSURE: 35.03 inHg
The bridge has no mercy. You suffer an oppressive heat as the bridge elevates you towards the radiating vents in the drop ceiling. The concrete that surrounds you makes sure this air remains uncirculated and stale. As one of the unlucky residents of the windowless bridge on the 6th floor, you are deprived of natural daylight, but spoiled with an overabundance of heat. During the first few months of one’s stay, Rudolph incubates within you a burning passion for knowledge and creativity. As if reciprocating this manic energy, Rudolph turns up its temperature on you as stakes get higher and deadlines approach. As your schedule continues at its frantic first semester pace, caffeine intake skyrockets, sleep plummets, and you wonder what happens when this fiery perseverance that keeps you going eventually burns you out.  

6th FLOOR PIT: 88°F / 31°C
(FEELS LIKE 97°F / 36°C)
As you stand in the center of it all, stumbling through your final presentation, you grow hot in embarrassment and fervor. Your “review outfit,” a tasteful blazer with a sweater underneath, only exacerbates the situation. When the jury finishes roasting you over an open flame, you turn to your neighbor and ask if they are hot, or if it’s just you. They answer yes, but whether due to nerves overstimulated by scalding black coffee or the literal temperature of the pit, you cannot be sure.

Issue Editors: Page Comeaux, Nicole Doan, Alejandro Duran
Design by Da Woon Jeon
Full Text



/
/

(DE)SIGN
2017 / Paprika! Vol 2 Issue 17: Mode

Deriving from the same Latin root signum, design as an act is intimately tied with sign, a representation that evokes a signified idea. To design is to designate: to create signs that mark out ideas beyond the object itself. But perhaps one can intentionally misread this etymology in a dumber way. If one interprets the root de as a removal (de-frost, de-laminate, de-activate), the act of design is reversed: a removal of signage from the object that complicates the pairing of a singular object with its signified meaning. This misinterpreted notion of de-sign informs parallel trends in architecture and fashion in which the object sign is removed from its original context to disrupt a singular understanding and introduce a multiplicity of interpretations. Fashion has been particularly infatuated with signage since its inception through its meticulous curation of brands, but in recent years, the appropriation of streetwear sensibilities in high fashion have shifted focus towards the logo as the primary object of design. The streetwear label, Supreme, in particular, has made its iconic Futura bold italic red box logo into a symbol of exclusivity through the pricing and self-imposed scarcity of its items. While Supremedesigns through a signing of objects with its brand, Demna Gvasalia’s Vetements appropriates existing signs and recontextualizes them as objects of desire. Most notably, the Vetements Spring/Summer 2016 line featured the appropriation of the uniform worn by DHL shipping company employees for the runway and later retail at a starting price of $330 USD. The shirt was a near exact replica of DHL worker’s uniforms, save a secondary understated, embroidered logo on the back collar “VETEMENTS/PRINTEMPS-ETE 2016.”

While the incorporation of irony and uniform-inspired motifs into fashion is by no means new, the direct quotation of the DHL uniform divorces the sign of the DHL logo from its original commercial association and turns it into a luxury brand within the tightly controlled supply chain of high fashion.

Issue Editors: Suzanne Marchelewicz, Francesca Xavier
Design by Bryce Wilner
In collaboration with Lani Barry
PDF



/
/

RISK PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (1/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Keller Easterling’s piece for the 2019 Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism addresses the topic of the Collective City in four new videos depicting protocols for informal, loosely collective action. These videos depict a series of stop motion spatial games where individuals address challenges their communities face by trading problems to formulate collective solutions. Risk Protocol depicts a process of subtraction in floodprone areas to reduce collective climate risk through a bundling of mortgages.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture



/
/

OVERDEVELOPMENT PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (2/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Overdevelopment Protocol outlines a similar notion of subtraction that addresses deforestation by linking the benefits of reforested areas with incentives for densification.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture



/
/

NEED PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (3/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Need Protocol explores the spatial interplay behind Social Capital Credits, coined by Geehta Mehta as a way to consider needs as currencies to be exchanged, which accumulate as collective benefits.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture



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DISASTER PROTOCOL
2019 / Video Installation (4/4) / Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City

Disaster Protocol portrays the process of Participatory Land Readjustment as a communal act of rearranging land ownership to increase the value of land as a whole.

Video Team: Keller Easterling, Jeffrey Liu, Matthew Wagstaffe, Paul Lorenz
Graphic Design: Steven Rodriguez
Fabrication: Juan Pablo Ponce de Leon, Adam Feldman
Exhibited in Seoul Biennale 2019 - Collective City with Keller Easterling
Published in E-Flux Architecture



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UNTITLED (TRACKING)
2017 / Video

Exhibited in Stealth, Subterranean Screening, Yale School of Art



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VILLA TYCOON
2017 / Video

Recognizing the inherent absurdity of Le Corbusier’s notion of architecture as a “machine for living” in attempting to couple the machinic with the human, this animation reimagines Villa Stein a as a Rube Goldberg machine for human motion. The video concieves of the Villa as an amusement park ride: a set of chain reactions for human exhilaration. The video translates Corbusier’s conception of the machine for life from purely aesthetic to literal.

Team: Jeffrey Liu, Nancy Chen, Anna Rothschild, Issy Yi




JEFFREY ZHENHUA LIU

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(b.1993) is a designer and writer based in Los Angeles, and an editor of Perspecta 55.

M. Arch 2019, Yale University
B.A. 2016, Princeton University

jeffrey.zhenhua@gmail.com
editor@perspecta55.com

CV / Instagram

Web Design by Haylie Chan

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